BS ISO 21285:2019 pdf download

BS ISO 21285:2019 pdf download.Soil quality – Inhibition of reproduction of the soil mite ( Hypoaspis aculeifer ] by soil contaminants.
Ecotoxicological test systems are applied to obtain information about the effects of contaminants in soil and are proposed to complement conventional chemical analysis (see ISO 15799 and ISO 17616). ISO 15799 includes a list and short characterization of recommended and standardized test systems and ISO 17616 gives guidance on the choice and evaluation of the bloassays. Aquatic test systems with soil eluate are applied to obtain information about the fraction of contaminants potentially reaching the groundwater by the water path (retention function of soils), whereas terrestrial test systems are used to assess the habitat function of soils.
Mites (Acari) are a world-wide and diverse group of arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida with over 40 000 species recorded, divided into two super-orders (Acariformes and Parasitiformes). Due to their relative small size (a few urn to a few cm), they occupy specific ecological niches on plants as well as in soils (see Reference [13]).
Among soil-inhabiting mites, the role of predation is ensured by, for example, Hypoaspis sp. (Laelapidae). Because they are exposed to chemical contamination, mites are already considered in the environmental risk assessment of pesticides, as non-target organisms (see Reference [10]). Indeed, among the data required for active substances of pesticides, effects on predatory mites are assessed, i.e. for the plantinhabitant Typhiodroinus pyri (Phytoseiidae) and the soil-inhabitant Hypoaspis aculeifer (Laelapidae)  (see Reference [f]).
The first authors introducing H. aculeifer as a test organism in ecotoxicological studies[ZiIIIZI were later proposed a two-species test system in the European project SECOFASE (Sublethal Effects of Chemicals on Fauna in the Soil Ecosystem), including the collembolan Folsoiniafimetaria as prey. In the context of the development of an ecotoxicological test for the assessment of plant protection products on non- target arthropods (see References [5][]), a protocol on soil predatory mites using H. aculeifer was further proposed. More recently, a standard test protocol for the assessment of chemicals was developed for this species by OECD in 2008 and revised in 2016. The results of the associated international ring- test were published in Reference [25].
Among mites, the predator Ilypoaspisaculeiferis the most studied species in laboratory. The reproduction end point was found in general to be more sensitive than mortality and avoidance. Compared to other soil meso-fauna invertebrates, mites were found in general less sensitive than or as sensitive as other test species, depending on the end points and chemicals studied. Considering semi-field studies, H. aculeifer was used as a top predator whereas other soil invertebrates, mainly springtails, were ranked in the grazer group. In these studies, mites showed to be quite tolerant towards anthropogenic contamination. This statement was also corroborated by field surveys. However, the applicability of laboratory test methods for the assessment of environmental samples (contaminated soils, wastes etc.)
Adult females are exposed to the soil to be tested and the effects on reproduction measured are compared to those observed for females exposed to a control soil. If appropriate, effects based on exposure to a dilution range of contaminated soil and control soil or a range of concentrations of a test substance mixed into control soil are determined. Test mixtures are prepared at the start of the test and are not renewed within the test period. The test is started with 10 adult females per test vessel. Males are not introduced in the test, because experience has shown that females mate immediately or shortly after hatching from the deutonymph stage, if males are present. As the females are introduced into the test about 7 d after they have reached the adult stage, the females can be considered as already mated (Annex A and Annex E). The test runs until the first offspring have reached the deutonymph stage. At 20 °C the exposure time ends at day 14 after introducing the females (day 0), followed by two days of extraction. The number of surviving females and the number of juveniles per test vessel are determined. The reproductive output of the mites exposed to the test mixtures is compared to that of the controls in order to determine the concentrations which cause no effects on mortality and reproduction (NOER/NOEC) and the concentration resulting in x % reduction of juveniles hatched from eggs compared to the control (ER/EC) respectively, depending on the experimental design (see 7.1.3).BS-ISO-21285-2019

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